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Country name: Conventional long form: Republic of Kyrgyzstan
Conventional short form: Kyrgyz, Kyrgyzstan
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Capital:  Bishkek
Official language: Kyrgyz and Russian
Administrative: 7 Provinces
2 Cities
Area:   199,900 km2
Population:  5,550 million (as on 2010)
Time zone:  UTC+5/6
Currency:  Som (KGS)  gerb
Drives on the: Right
Internet domain code:  .kg
Calling code: +996
Independence:   August 31, 1991
Natural resources: Natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold,
uranium, antimony
Religion: Islam- 80% 

Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. The capital of the country and the largest city is Bishkek.

The territory of the country is 198,5 km2. Kyrgyzstan is divided into seven provinces administered by appointed governors. The capital, Bishkek, and the second largest city Osh are administratively independent cities with a status equal to a province. The provinces and independent cities are City of Bishkek, Batken, Chuy, Jalal-Abad, Naryn, Osh, Talas, Issyk-Kul and City of Osh.

Kyrgyz Republic is mountainous country. The mountainous region of the Tian Shan covers over 80% of the country. Issyk-Kul Lake in the north-eastern Tian Shan is the largest lake in Kyrgyzstan and the second largest mountain lake in the world after Titicaca. The highest peaks are in the Kakshaal-Too range, forming the Chinese border. Peak Jengish Chokusu, at 7,439 m (24,406 ft), is the highest point and is considered by geologists to be the northernmost peak over 7,000 m (22,966 ft) in the world.

The principal river is the Kara Darya, which flows west through the Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan. Across the border in Uzbekistan it meets another major Kyrgyz river, the Naryn. The confluence forms the Syr Darya River. The Chu River also briefly flows through Kyrgyzstan before entering Kazakhstan.

The climate of the country varies regionally. The south-western Fergana Valley is subtropical and extremely hot in summer, with temperatures reaching40 °C (104 °F). The northern foothills are temperate and the Tian Shan varies from dry continental to polar climate, depending on elevation. In the coldest areas temperatures are sub-zero for around 40 days in winter, and even some desert areas experience constant snowfall in this period.

Kyrgyzstan is multinational country. 68.9%-kyrgyzs, 14.4%- uzbeks, 9.1% -russians, 7.6%- kazakhs, uygyrs and tajiks.

Islam is the dominant religion of Kyrgyzstan: 80% of the population is Muslim while 17% follow Russian Orthodoxy and 3% other religions.

According to David C. King, "Scythians were early settlers in present-day Kyrgyzstan". As early as the 7th century, Turkic traders introduced Islam to Central Asia, including what is now Kyrgyzstan, through doing business with Arabic people. The Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after, under the leadership of Jordan the Superior, defeating the Uyghur Khanate in 840 A.D. Then the Kyrgyz quickly moved as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years. In the twelfth century, however, the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated south. The Kyrgyz were conquered by Genghis Khan in 1207. Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the 17th century by the Mongol Oirats, in the mid-18th century by the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and in the early 19th century by the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand. In the late nineteenth century, the majority part of what is today Kyrgyzstan was ceded to Russia through two treaties between China (then Qing Dynasty) and Russia. The territory, then known in Russian as "Kirgizia", was formally incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1876. Soviet power was initially established in the region in 1919, and the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR (the phrase Kara-Kirghiz was used until the mid-1920s by the Russians to distinguish them from the Kazakhs, who were also referred to as Kirghiz). On 5 December 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a full republic of the Soviet Union. Independence of Kyrgyzstan was declared in 31 August 1991. Kyrgyzstan gained full independence on 25 December 1991. On 5 May 1993, the "Republic of Kyrgyzstan" was renamed the "Kyrgyz Republic".

Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Non-aligned movement and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. On 21 December 1991, Kyrgyzstan joined with the other four Central Asian Republics to formally enter the new Commonwealth of Independent States. In 1992, Kyrgyzstan joined the United Nations and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe(OSCE).

Kyrgyzstan has significant deposits of metals including gold and rare earth metals. Due to the country's predominantly mountainous terrain, less than 8% of the land is cultivated, and this is concentrated in the northern lowlands and the fringes of the Fergana Valley.

Kyrgyzstan is rich in mineral resources but has negligible petroleum and natural gas reserves; it imports petroleum and gas. Among its mineral reserves are substantial deposits of coal, gold, uranium, antimony, and other valuable metals. Metallurgy is an important industry, and the government hopes to attract foreign investment in this field. The government has actively encouraged foreign involvement in extracting and processing gold. The country's plentiful water resources and mountainous terrain enable it to produce and export large quantities of hydroelectric energy.

Agriculture is an important sector of the economy in Kyrgyzstan. By the early 1990s, the private agricultural sector provided between one-third and one-half of some harvests. Kyrgyzstan's terrain is mountainous, which accommodates livestock raising, the largest agricultural activity, so the resulting wool, meat and dairy products are major commodities. Main crops include wheat, sugar beets, potatoes, cotton, tobacco, vegetables and fruit. Agricultural processing is a key component of the industrial economy as well as one of the most attractive sectors for foreign investment.

The principal exports of Kyrgyz Republic are nonferrous metals and minerals, woolen goods and other agricultural products, electric energy and certain engineering goods. Imports include petroleum and natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, most machinery, wood and paper products, some foods and some construction materials. Its leading trade partners include Germany, Russia, China, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

With Issuk Kul and Son-Kul lakes, numerous national parks, beautiful valleys, high mountain peaks and plenty of historical and architectural monuments like Suleiman Mountain, Uzgen architectural complex, Buran Tower, Shakh-Fazil mausoleum and the caravanserai Tash-Rabat, Kyrgyzstan is one of the famous destinations among tourists.

NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

  • January 1 – New Year's Day
  • January 7 – Russian Orthodox Christmas
  • February 23 - Fatherland Defender's Day
  • March 8 – Women's Day
  • March 21 – Nooruz, Iranian spring festival
  • March 24 – Day of National Revolution
  • May 1 – Labor Day
  • May 5 – Constitution Day
  • May 8 – Remembrance Day
  • May 9 – Victory Day (end of World War II)
  • August 31 – Independence Day
  • November 7 - Day of the Great October Socialist Revolution

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